“We have actively sought and are actively seeking to make the United Nations an effective instrument of international cooperation”
The United Nations organisation is an association of countries which have pledged to maintain peace and security in the world. They also work for increasing co-operation among the countries of the world. These also collaborate with political, economic, social and cultural aspects of the country. The name ‘United Nation’ was suggested by United States President Franklin D. Roosevelt. He first used this word in the Declaration by the United Nation which was held on January 1, 1942 during the tenure of Second World War. There were 26 nations who thrived for pursuing better relations. The charter of United Nations was signed on 26 June 1945 which was witnessed by representation of 50 countries. The United Nations came into existence on 24 October, 1945 with the signature of 51th country, Poland. Thus, United Nations day is celebrated on 24 October.
In today’s world UN is doing a dedicated work to help them. This also helps the creation of support system for attainment of goals. Human right protection, saving children from starvation, providing relief to refugees, cross countering global crime curbing drugs and diseases are the chief areas of work of UN. There are five official languages of United Nations which are: –
The United Nation has sex main organs. All of these are established by its founding charter. All these organs have their head quarters in New York except one. The International Court of Justice has its headquarters set in Hague, Netherlands. The six principal organs are: –
- The General Assembly.
- The Security Council.
- The Economic and Social Council.
- Trusteeship Council
- The International Court of Justice.
- The Secretariat Service
- The General Assembly – It is the main deliberative body of UN. This comprises of all the members. Here, every member has the right to vote. It begins one a year, commencing on first Tuesday following September. The general debate is also organised over a period of two weeks which begin from 3rd week of September. At the start of each session, the assembly elects a new president and 21 vice president and Chairman of its committee. Every year sessions commence within the 24 hours at the request of Security Council on the vote of any country or on the basis of a majority of United Nation member. Two-third majority is required for questions like peace, security, membership and budgetary members. The recommendation here reflects the opinion of world. The present President of United Nations General Assembly is Peter Thomson representing Fiji. There are six committee of this UN General Assembly which include: –
- The First Committee –
Disarmament and International Security (DISEC).
2.The Second Committee –
Economic and Financial (ECOFIN)
3.The Third Committee –
Social, Cultural and Humanitarian (SOCHON)
4.The Forth Committee –
Special Political and Decolonisation (SPECPOL)
5.The Fifth Committee –
Administrative and Budgetary and General
6.The Sixth Committee –
The Security Council –
The major responsibilities try under the Security Council. Establish under the charter, for maintaining international peace and security. These have five permanent members, namely,
These five countries should have their representative present 24×7 in the United Nation Headquarters. If one member is absent then, the meeting is cancelled. The president of this council rotates monthly in accordance to English alphabetic order and member names. This council has total 15 members, 5 permanent (as previously mentioned) and 10 non-permanent member elected for a period of two years by a 2/3rd majority of general assembly. Every member has one and non transferable vote. Retiring members can seek re-election. A country can participate in discussion without not if the topic is for its natural interest.
The economic and Social Council –
This council works under General Assembly. This council is used for co-ordination to the functions of United Nation with regard to aspects like international economic, social, cultural, education, health and other related matters. This council has 54 members’ states elected by a two-third majority of the General Assembly for 3 years term. One third of the members retire each year. However, retiring members have the right to be elected eligible. Every month has a vote in this council. Decisions are made in this council on the basis of majority of members present and voting. The council holds substance sessions between New York and Geneva. One organisation session is held in New York. Special session is organised if required. The president of the council is elected for a period of one year and can be re-elected. The budget for this council proposed by UN is around 6,300 dollar per year. The present president of the United Nation Economic and Social council is Frederick Musuiiwa Makamurae Shava who is the permanent representative of Zimbabwe to the United Nations in New York.
The Trusteeship Council –
This Council helps in developing self government or independence. It also helps in government administering trust territory. In simple words, this organ works for the organisation system in a place working for its inhabitants.
The International Council of Justice (ICJ) –
This principle judicial organ of the United Nation works for legal disputes. The number of judges in the International Court of Justice is fifteen. It gives advisory opinion on legal questions by which can hinder world peace and obstruct the international co-operation and co-ordination.
The Secretarial Services –
These five organs of UN and their work are handled by almost a staff of 8900 at the United Nation Headquarters in New York and all over the world. Apart from there five main organs, there are some non-political and specialised agencies are affiliated to United Nation Organisation. Some of these are: –
- World Health Organisation (WHO)
- International Monetary Fund (IMF)
United Nation Organisation has been successful and effective and the war between stopping England and Egypt over Suez Canal. Korean was his also been curbed by the means of UNO. UNO has also checked the Arab Israel conflict.
Poverty and desire are also the areas worked by specified areas. IMF has provided under developed countries with money funds. This solving of monetary issue has led them to the path of progress. UNESO is working to promote education. This work of UNO explores it useful work in social and economic fields. UNO is a hope for the world. This organisation can bring world peace and harmony. The member of Security Council should be increased to reflect the demographic and regional divisions of the world.