The sun is considered to be the central point of the solar having the sun has a rise of about 740 times of the total area of all the planets combined in solar system. The huge mass of sun has the potential of creating gravity keeps the other planetary objects round around in a sequential and an orderly manner. The distance of the sun from the centre of our galaxy is around 32,000 light years. Nearly 250 million years are required by the sun to complete its one revolution around its axis. This period is mainly known as the cosmic year in celestial language. The sun has mainly the element of hydrogen. The energy possessed by the sun is created by means of nuclear fusion on its surface where two molecules of hydrogen combine to form one molecule of Helium. The sun consumes about a trillion pounds of hydrogen every second. Furthermore, it is expected that the sun will burn all its stock of hydrogen in a period of about 5 billion years. This will turn seen into a big giant. What is seen by human eyes is the glowing surface of the sun commonly known as photosphere. Above photosphere is the layer of chromospheres which is so called due to its reddish colour. Beyond this layer there is magnificent corona of sun. This corona is visible during solar eclipses. Between these two layers of chromospheres and corona, some investigation done by spectroscope have suggested a very narrow boundary between the two known as the transition region.

The temperature of the photosphere is about 6000oC, that of the chromospheres is about 32,400oC and transition region has the temperature around 324,000oC. Corona which extends in far of has about 2700, 000oC.

Chemical composition of the sun (By Volume).

Sl. No. Element Percentage
1. Hydrogen 81.76%
2. Oxygen 0.03%
3. Magnesium 0.02%
4. Nitrogen 0.01%
5. Others 0.01%
Total 100%