Genetic Engineering is a relatively new term that has found its way in the scenario of medical science. But the question that arises is what is engineering doing with genes? Genes are considered to be a part of human body. Engineering is considered to be a form of fusion, deletions, in versions etc. Thus, by genetic engineering we refer to the transportation manipulation of genes in human body. This new technique expresses various forms and their relation to the evolution of modern man. Genetic Engineering uses the technology of genes splitting and recombinant DNA (Deoxyribonucleic Acid). In today’s medical science these are considered to be a form of genetic engineering. In the process of recombinant DNA technology, the transfusion or grafting of DNA of one organism to another takes place. In the process of recombination of DNA and E-Coli Bacterium is also broken down by the help of a detergent. After some times, this plasmid is dipped in an enzyme with restriction properties commonly known as endo nuclease. This enzyme creates various cleavages in the plasmid. However, this enzyme (although a restricted one) helps in separating DNA from a virus. Now the process of inserting this gene into the DNA of a bacteria or any organism takes place. Now the formation of DNA ligase helps in joining the two segments above mentioned. This ligase has a tendency to act like a glue. This hybrid plasmid is their given the opportunity to be introduced into various bacterium which gets divided and multiplied very fast.
By using this process, various engineered substances have been produced and introduced in the field of medical sciences. Among them a few notable are as follows: –
- Human Insulin 2. INTERCRON
- Antivirus 4. Anti Cancer
- Somatrem 6. Growth Hormone
- Vaccine for Hepatitis 8. Plasminogen Activator
- Blood Clotting Etc.
Thus, genetic engineering is a new branch seeking benefit of mankind.