The Human Genome first came into scientific scene in the year 1994. In this year, many scientists proved that DNA is a genetic material or element or compound in human body. Arthur Komburg, a scientist showed the synthesis of human DNA in vitro, whereas Robert Holley was the one who explored the sequence of 77 based long genes in human body. Har Gobind Khurana also explained the concept of synthesising functional genes in human body. However, all these were time consuming research requiring hard labour. Robert Holly devoted many years to explain the base of small gene and its sequence whereas Har Gobind Khurana worked with his twenty four colleagues for nine years. He developed an assemble 227 base long gene. However, the sequencing and isolation of genes gained attention with the discovery of enzymes having restriction properties. Moreover, the mapping and sequencing of human genome is very difficult as it spreads around 24 types (23x and 1y) of chromosomes present in human body. This enormous and difficult task eventually developed till the year 1985 when James Watson and other molecular biologist proved that these is an existing arrangement of sequence of genes. However, their experiment failed as they had various small groups of researches working in different pace. Therefore, they could not help in the construction of 3 billion base pair long human genome.
Craig Venter recognised the vital importance of automatic sequence of decoding of human genes. Venter further purchased a sequencer machine which helps in decoding human genes faster and within a year decoded around 10000 base pair of human genome. Human genome map established itself around the year 1991 as venter identified around 347 genes and his colleagues wanted to patent them. Fianis Collins, one of the distinguished researcher started as a director to this project. Various institutions like The Institute of Genome Research, NITT etc. contributed in this regard. Automatic sequencing of genes is taken into regard here. Hamilton Smith worked on the concept of Restriction Enzymes. Hamilton Smith was a Noble Laurite from John Hopkins University working for bacterial genetic. What he found was very interesting. He observed that some kinds of bacteria have the property of breaking down of viral DNA as biological scissors and are referred as restriction enzymes. Smith is focusing leads to isolation of genome and paved the way for a new concept of genetic engineering.
Shotgun sequencing method developed soon and goes directly to the job of decoding of human genes or genome. These changes lead to Franis Callus in setting up of new goals and developing a five year plan for the time period 1998 – 2003. This plan will take objectives for the development of new technology in decoding human genes.
A genome map was developed by German and Japanese researcher who published the entire sequence of chromosome 21 of human genome. A draft map was also published on June 26, 2000 which reflected the rough sequencing of human genes of an individual. The whole world was surprised to know the genome effects of the homo sapiens. Celera determined the genetic code of five individual which included three females and two males.
This project was launched in the year 1990. This is first large science project in the field of biology. The planning of this project is done with an expenditure of around three billion dollars. This project further involves 18 countries and 250 laboratories. This project has an objective to help the creation of a map which have the whole set of genes (genome) present in human cell. This project helps in decoding human cells by explaining the concept of three billion units or base pairs (bp) of human DNA. The genome is also known as the book of life. The exploration and interpretation of the Human Genome Project will provide the answers to the question of human organs and how these are built? Another aspect that is observed here is how human body helps in the functioning of human body as a healthy human being. As we all know, health comprises of both physical and mental structure of an individual. The context and content of this project is that it provides information pertaining to gene and its associated disease. These findings will also reveal the design of human body and strategies to cures them. Gene therapy provides information about curing an individual but not his descendents. As genes are hereditary transfer of human body. Another aspect that needs to be cured through this process of genes is that the successor (ofcourse with better treatment) can remove the genetic defect. Such kind of inventions and discoveries will help in changing the gene of entire human species. The future generation will be the one who have to live with these changes that are taken into account by means of gene changes. Many diseases can be conquered or eradicated by this project known as the Human Genome Project (HGP). This is a revolution in the field of genetics.
Benefits of Human Gene – The chief benefit of human gene is that it helps in determining the genetic disorders or having scientific basis in genes. It helps in determining the unique element of an individual. The genes and its information are useful to physicians to know about the sensitivity of their patients. Also, it helps in explaining the pharmaceutical companies to design drugs on the basis of individual results. These also help in creating genetic profile of patients. Various new technologies like Genome Map, Genetic Counselling and Gremlin Gene Therapy (its prediction and prevention) are also developed on the basis of genetic research. The practical way to use new technology is basically related to genetic screening and counselling. Genetic knowledge will lead to treatment which will help in knowing the real cause of disease. It will also lead to lessen the effects of any disease related to genetic disorder. Genetic mutations are too referred in any kind of treatment based on genetic disorder. Thus, human genome is considered to be a revolutionary technology in the path of medical sciences. However, a lot of changes and inventions are still to come in this sector, thereby making it more popular among the therapists of the world.